Embedded System

What is Embedded System ?


What does Embedded System mean?

An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software designed for a specific function. Embedded systems may also function within a larger system. The systems can be programmable or have a fixed functionality. Industrial machines, consumer electronics, agricultural and processing industry devices, automobiles, medical equipment, cameras, digital watches, household appliances, airplanes, vending machines and toys, as well as mobile devices, are possible locations for an embedded system.


Examples of embedded systems
  • Automobiles:
  • Modern cars commonly consist of many computers (sometimes as many as 100), or embedded systems, designed to perform different tasks within the vehicle. Some of these systems perform basic utility functions and others provide entertainment or user-facing functions. Some embedded systems in consumer vehicles include cruise control, backup sensors, suspension control, navigation systems and airbag systems.

  • Mobile phones:
  • These consist of many embedded systems, including GUI software and hardware, operating systems (OSes), cameras, microphones, and USB (Universal Serial Bus) I/O (input/output) modules.

  • Industrial machines:
  • They can contain embedded systems, like sensors, and can be embedded systems themselves. Industrial machines often have embedded automation systems that perform specific monitoring and control functions.

  • Medical equipment:
  • These may contain embedded systems like sensors and control mechanisms. Medical equipment, such as industrial machines, also must be very user-friendly so that human health isn't jeopardized by preventable machine mistakes. This means they'll often include a more complex OS and GUI designed for an appropriate UI.


How an Embedded System Works

Embedded systems are managed by microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP), application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), GPU technology, and gate arrays. These processing systems are integrated with components dedicated to handling electric and/or mechanical interfacing. Embedded systems programming instructions, referred to as firmware, are stored in read-only memory or flash memory chips, running with limited computer hardware resources. Embedded systems connect with the outside world through peripherals, linking input and output devices.

Embedded System Applications
  • Smart Homes
  • Most of the products in your home are embedded which gives excellent experience and comfort to the user. Examples are Home Security system, Setup Box, Digital Camera, Television, Microwave Oven, Air cooler, Refrigerator, and much more.

  • Offices
  • They are also into commercial enterprise solutions for inter-networking business clients. Examples are Router, Modem, Printer, and Gateways.

  • Transportation
  • The automotive industry is well competing worldwide. Some of the Embedded subsystems in automobiles are Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), Air conditioning control, Ignition control, Airbag control, Rain sensing wipers.

  • Healthcare
  • The medical field is a critical one, and the use of embedded systems is a nightmare. The odd design may lead to a disastrous effect on society or an individual. Examples are Blood pressure monitors, Heartbeat monitors, pacemakers, telesupervision and surgery, Scanners, Portable

  • Industrial world
  • The recent challenges of embedded systems extended its scope towards automation. Automation is the process of doing a task repetitively. Automation increases machine productivity, reducing development cost and design time. Examples are Industrial machinery and control, Temperature monitoring, 3D printing machines, Robotics, and Industrial Internet of Things.